Guide to Punctuation. Larry Trask University of Sussex. Table of Contents. Introduction; Why Learn to Punctuate? The Full Stop, the Question Mark and the Exclamation Mark.
When writing, we use punctuation to indicate these places of emphases. This handout should help to clarify when and how to use various marks of punctuation. Independent clause: a clause that has a subject and a verb and can stand alone; a complete sentence. Dependent clause: a clause that has a subject and a verb but cannot stand alone; an incomplete sentence. Comma. Use a comma to join two.
A. No apostrophe for simple plurals: Ph.D.s or Ph.D. degrees. (Source: Ask the Editor, Spelling) I cannot find anything in The Chicago Manual of Style, at least not yet. Therefore, it seems that you can either use or not use the apostrophe according to your own “taste.”.
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Any punctuation or italics which are required for independent reasons should be used normally; this includes a question mark at the end if the title is a question. If there is a subtitle, a colon should be placed at the end of the title proper; unless the title and the subtitle are both very short, it is best to use two lines. There are two possible styles for capitalization: you may.
A Cambridge PhD is intellectually demanding and you will need to have a high level of attainment and motivation to pursue this programme of advanced study and research. In most faculties a candidate is expected to have completed one year of postgraduate study, normally on a research preparation master's course, prior to starting a PhD. Completion normally requires three or four years of full.
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Tips on Grammar, Punctuation and Style. Commas and semi-colons. If the rules you learned about commas and semi-colons don't mean much to you, forget them and try this: Read one of your sentences aloud and see where you would naturally pause, where you would draw a breath. If it's a short pause, like that just was, you probably need a comma. If it's a longer pause, but not quite a full stop.